Toshiaki Yamada was educated at Toyo University where he received his B.A. and M.A. Degrees. His doctorate is from Taisyo University. He has served as a research Assistant at Taisyo Univ. (1975-1985); an Assistant Professor at Toyo University (1985-1988); Associate Professor at Toyo University (1988-1995), and since 1995 he is a full Professor Toyo University.
paper given at Taoism and Ecology conference
The Shangqing and Lingbao scriptures appeared during the Eastern Jin period. Both scriptural traditions revered sacred mountains and respected natural beauty. Mountains in Jiangnan were, in fact, divinities and also functioned as holy altars for Taoists. A Taoist sought ritual communication with the spirits or gods of famous sacred mountains. There are, for example, stories in the Baopuzi of mountain deities who gave trouble to those who violated the rules for entering into mountains. These attitudes in early Taoism contributed to a kind of unique naturalism that focused on the conservation of nature in relation to mountains. This presentation will conclude with a consideration of traditional Taoist mystical naturalism and its relation to contemporary ecological views.