Home » Resources for Educators » Resources » Syllabi » Here

Anthropology of Religion (Sponsel)

Course Title

Anthropology of Religion
422

   
Instructor(s)

Les Sponsel
Professor
University of Hawaii

   
Discipline

Anthropology; Religion

   
Subject(s)

Anthropology; Religion

   
Pedagogical Level

Undergraduate

   
Date

Fall 1998

   
Presentation

University of Hawaii

   
Overview

Description

What is spiritual ecology and who are its pioneers? Are indigenous people spiritual ecologists? What are the arguments for and against linking religion and ecology? What is Buddhist ecology and why have many monks turned from individual meditation to environmental activism? What are sacred places and do they have any ecological or conservation significance? These and many other questions will be explored, critically analyzed, and debated in this course.

After introductory lectures on the anthropology of religion, the course will successively focus on spiritual ecology, Buddhist ecology, and sacred places through open discussion of the required texts, panel discussions of case studies, selected videos, and guest speakers. The instructor will also discuss with slides his related fieldwork in southern Thailand with biology colleagues and developing comparative project in northern Venezuela and northern New Mexico, and his participation and observations in various Harvard conferences on spiritual ecology and one at UNESCO in Paris on sacred places and biodiversity conservation. Researchers currently involved in the recreation of Kahoolawe as a sacred place will discuss their work.

Goals

  1. To provide a general survey of the anthropology of religion, spiritual ecology, Buddhist ecology, sacred places in nature, and related topics.

  2. To explore sacred places in Hawaii in individual research and report the results to the class (oral presentation and written summary).

  3. To become familiar with the basic literature and resources on these subjects.

  4. To critically analyze spiritual ecology and especially the pros and cons of turning to religion as a source for the reduction or resolution of environmental crises.
   
Format

The course will be devoted mostly to discussion, although a few lectures will be given by the instructor, especially at the beginning. There will also be some guest lectures. Discussion will include open and group discussion of the assigned readings as well as panel discussions of particular books as case studies. Videos are an integral part of the course, but most will be assigned to view outside of class while the instructor is away at conferences. A video guide is on Reserve in Sinclair Library.

   
Prerequisites

None listed

   
Requirements

See “Grades”

   
Evaluation

Grades
The grading criteria are negotiable, but the following basis is suggested:

Mid-term and Final Take-Home Essay Examinations
20–25%
Panel Discussions
30%
Research Report on Sacred Places in Hawaii
20%
Class Attendance and Participation
5%
Extra Credit
20–25%

Each student is required to conduct and report on a modest research project (field and/or library) on some aspect of sacred places in nature in Hawaii.

   
Texts

Required Texts

Gottlieb, Roger S., ed. 1996. This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment. New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

Kinsley, David. 1995. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Each student is also required to select at least one of the following books which are listed in the order scheduled for panel discussions:

Appell, George N., and Leslie E. Sponsel, eds. Sacred Places and Biodiversity Conservation (manuscript on reserve).

Formoso, Bernard, ed. 1996. The Link With Nature and Divine Mediations in Asia. Providence, R.I.: Berghahn Books.

Harvey, Graham. 1997. Contemporary Paganism: Listening People, Speaking Earth. Washington Square, New York University.

Holm, Jean, and John Bowker, eds. 1994. Sacred Place. New York, N.Y.: St. Martin’s Press.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Duncan Ryuken Williams, eds. 1997. Buddhist Ecology: The Interconnections of Dharma and Deeds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press/Center for the Study of World Religions.

Swan, James A. 1990. Sacred Places: How the Living Earth Seeks Our Friendship. Santa Fe, N. Mex.: Bear and Co., Publishing.

Whelan, Robert, et al. 1996. The Cross and the Rain Forest: A Critique of Radical Green Spirituality. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.


Recommended Texts

Callicott, J. Baird. 1994. Earth’s Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Gyallay-Pap, Peter, and Ruth Bottomley, eds. 1998. Toward an Environmental Ethic in Southeast Asia. Boulder, Colo.: Khmer-Buddhist Educational Assistance Project.

Smith, Huston. 1976. Forgotten Truth: The Common Vision of the World’s Religions. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins Publishers.


Periodicals

A list of journals is appended. However, of special relevance is: Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion. Also see the special issue on “The Earth in Crisis: Religion’s New Test of Faith.” WholeEarth No. 91 (winter 1997).

   
Schedule  
Aug 25

Course Orientation
Video

  • Spirit and Nature.

Open Discussion

Sept 1 Overview of the Anthropology of Religion
Videos
  • Keeping the Earth: Religious and Scientific Perspectives on the Environment.
  • Ecopsychology: Restoring the Earth, Healing the Self.

Recommended Videos

  • The Holy Ghost People.
  • The Way of the Shaman.
  • The Rebirth of Nature.
  • Oren Lyons the Faithkeeper.
  • A Personal Philosophy [Huston Smith].
Sept 8

A Short Survey of the History of Anthropological Theories of Religion
Video

  • Bhutan: The Last Shangri-La.

    Assigned Reading

    • Kinsley, Preface and Introduction.
    • Gottlieb, I.
  • Sept 15

    Traditional Cultures and Religions
     Assigned Reading

    • Kinsley, 1-4.
    • Gottlieb, II.
    Recommended Videos
    • Primal Mind.
    • An Ecology of Mind.
    • From the Heart of the World [Kogi, Colombia].
    • Brother Sun, Sister Moon [St. Francis].
    • Hinduism and Buddhism [Huston Smith].
    • Islam [Huston Smith].
    • Sacred Sites of Europe [cathedrals].
    • Listen to the Forest [Hawaii].
    • The Last Wave [Australian Aborigine].
    • Wallace Black Elk: Return of the Sacred Hoop.
    Sept 22

    To be arranged

    Sept 29

    Report on Harvard and UNESCO Conferences

    Oct 6

    Foromoso book on Spiritual Ecology in Asia (panel)
     Slide Lecture
    “What’s in a Tree?: Sacred Trees and Biodiversity Conservation in Thailand”
    Class Discussion

    Assigned Reading

    • Kinsley, 5-7.

    Recommended Videos

    • The Goddess and the Computer [Bali].
    • Eleven Powers.
    • Kumano and Koya: In the Heart of Japan.
    • Shinto: Nature, Gods, and Man in Japan.
    Oct 13 Tucker-Williams book on Buddhist Ecology (panel)
    Slide Lecture
    “Buddhist Ecology and Forests in Thailand”
    Recommended Videos
    • Buddhism, Man, and Nature.
    • Ladakh: Kingdom in the Clouds.
    • Thailand (Mini Dragons II).
    • The Greening of Thailand.
    Oct 20

    Class Discussion
    Assigned Reading

    • Kinsley, 8-10, 12.
    • Gottlieb, III.
    Oct 27 Whelan book on Critique of Spiritual Ecology (panel)
    Class Debate
    “The Pros and Cons of Spiritual Ecology”
    Nov 3  Holiday: Election Day
    Nov 10 Harvey book on Neopaganism (panel)
     Assigned Reading
    • Kinsley, 14, 16.
    • Gottlieb, IV, V.
    Nov 17

    Swan book on Sacred Places (panel)
     Assigned Reading

    • Gottlieb, VI.
    Recommended Video
    • Sacred Ground.
    • Our Sacred Land.
    Nov 24 Holm-Bowker book on Sacred Places (panel)
    Appell-Sponsel book on Sacred Places and Biodiversity conservation (panel)
    Dec 1 Sacred Places in Hawaii (individual research)
    (no class meeting)
    Dec 8

    Class Discussion
    Assigned Reading

    • Kinsley, 13, 15, 17.
    • Gottlieb, VII.
    Dec 15

    Research Reports: Sacred Places and Spiritual Ecology in Hawaii (12:00-2:00)

       
    Other Research Items

    Selected Periodicals

    Anthropology
    American Anthropologist
    American Ethnologist
    Annual Review of Anthropology
    Anthropology Today
    Anthropos
    Cultural Anthropology
    Current Anthropology
    Ethnology
    Journal of Anthropological Research
    Man
    Reviews in Anthropology

    Environment
    The Ecologist
    Environmental Ethics
    Human Ecology
    The Trumpeter: Journal of Ecosophy

    Religion
    Journal of Religion
    Journal of Religious Ethics
    Journal of Religious History
    Journal of Religious Studies
    Journal of Religious Thought
    Journal of the American Academy of Religion
    Missiology
    Numen
    Religion
    Religious Studies Review
    Religious Studies
    Religious Traditions
    Review of Religious Research
    Sociology of Religion
    Zygon

    World Religions
    Buddhist Review
    Buddhist Studies
    Eastern Buddhist (Asia)
    Hawaiian Buddhist Women’s News
    Hawaii Buddhism
    Indian Journal of Buddhist Studies
    Wheel of Dharma (folio)
    Won Buddhism (Asia)
    Zen Buddhism Today (Asia)
    American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences
    Islamic Culture (Asia)
    Islamic Perspective (Asia)
    Islamic Quarterly
    Islamic Studies (Asia)
    Islamic Surveys
    Islamic Thought and Scientific Creativity
    Islamic Times
    Muslim World


    Selected Publications of the Instructor

    1992 “A Comparison of the Cultural Ecology of Adjacent Muslim and Buddhist Villages in Southern Thailand.” Journal of the National Research Council of Thailand 23, No. 2, 31–42.

    1992 (with Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel). “Thailand: Buddhism, Ecology, and Forests.” The New Road. 21: 4-5.

    1993 (with Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel). “The Potential Contribution of Buddhism in Developing an Environmental Ethic for the Conservation of Biodiversity.” In Ethics, Religion and Biodiversity: Relations between Conservation and Cultural Values.ed. Lawrence Hamilton. Cambridge, UK: White Horse Press, pp. 75-97.

    1995 (with Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel). “The Role of Buddhism in Creating a More Sustainable Society in Thailand.” In Counting the Costs: Economic Growth and Environmental Change in Thailand. ed. Jonathan Rigg. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 27- 46.

    1997 “Environment and Nature: Buddhism.” In Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. ed. Helaine Selin. Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 290-291.

    1997 (with Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel). “A Theoretical Analysis of the Potential Contribution of the Monastic Community in Promoting a Green Society in Thailand.” In Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. eds. Mary Evelyn Tucker and Duncan Williams. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press/Center for the Study of World Religions, pp. 45–68.

    1998 (with Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel, Nukul Ruttanadakul, and Somporn Juntadach). “Sacred and/or Secular Approaches to Biodiversity Conservation in Thailand.” Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion. 2, No.2 (1988): 155-167.

    1998 “Is Indigenous Spiritual Ecology Just a New Fad? Reflections from the Historical Ecology of Hawaii and the Ecological Transition.” In Indigenous Traditions and Ecology. ed. John Grim, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press/Center for the Study
    of World Religions (in press).


    Anthropology of Religion and Ecology: Selected Books

    Introductory Anthropology Textbooks

    Bowen, John R. 1998. Religions in Practice: An Approach to the Anthropology of Religion. Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.

    Malefijt, Annemarie de Waal. 1968. Religion and Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Religion. New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Co.

    Norbeck, Edward. 1961. Religion in Primitive Society. New York, N.Y.: Harper and Row, Publishers.

    Norbeck, Edward. 1974. Religion in Human Life: Anthropological Views. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, Inc.

    Pandian, Jacob. 1991. Culture, Religion, and the Sacred Self: A Critical Introduction to the Anthropological Study of Religion. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

    Wallace, Anthony F. C. 1966. Religion: An Anthropological View. New York, N.Y.: Random House.

    Comparative Religion

    Bell, Catherine. 1992. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

    Matthews, Warren. 1995. World Religions. Minneapolis, Minn.: West Publishing Co.

    Paden, William E. 1988. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.

    Paden, William E. 1992. Interpreting the Sacred: Ways of Viewing Religion. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.

    Rausch, David A., and Carl Hermann Voss. 1993. World Religions. New York, N.Y.: Trinity Press International.

    Sharma, Arvind, ed. 1993. Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins.

    Smith, Huston. 1991. The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins Publishers.

    Smith, Huston. 1992. Forgotten Truth: The Common Vision of the World’s Religions. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins.

    Stuart, Ninian. 1989. The World’s Religions. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.


    Reference Works

    Barfield, Thomas, ed. 1997. The Dictionary of Anthropology. New York, N.Y.: Blackwell Publishers.

    Eliade, Mircea, et al. 1987. Encyclopedia of Religion. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan, vols. 1-16.

    Glazier, Stephen D., ed. 1997. Anthropology of Religion: A Handbook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

    Levinson, David, and Melvin Ember, eds. 1996. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt and Co.

    Swatos, William H., Jr. 1998. Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press.


    Anthologies

    Bowen, John R., ed. 1998. Religion, Culture, and Society. Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.

    Johnstone, Ronald L., ed. 1997. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

    Lehmann, Arthur C., and James E. Myers, eds. 1997. Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion: An Anthropological Study of the Supernatural. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Publishing Co.

    Lessa, William A., and Evon Z. Vogt, eds. 1965. Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach. 2d ed. New York, N.Y.: Harper and Row, Publishers.

    Middleton, John, ed. 1967. Magic, Witchcraft, and Curing. Garden City, N.Y.: The Natural History Press.

    Middleton, John, ed. 1967. Gods and Rituals: Readings in Religious Beliefs and Practices. Garden City, N.Y.: The Natural History Press.

    Middleton, John, ed. 1967. Myth and Cosmos: Readings in Mythology and Symbolism. Garden City, N.Y.: The Natural History Press.


    History of Theories

    Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1965. Theories of Primitive Religion. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

    Morris, Brian. 1987. Anthropological Studies of Religion: An Introductory Text. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

    Pals, Daniel L. 1996. Seven Theories of Religion. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

    Segal, Robert A. 1989. Religion and the Social Sciences. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press.

    Sell, Alan P. F. 1988. The Philosophy of Religion 1875-1980. Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press.

    Sharpe, Eric J. 1974. Comparative Religion: A History. New York, N.Y.: Charles Scribner’s Sons.


    Classics

    Campbell, Joseph. 1972. Myths to Live By. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books.

    Douglas, Mary. 1966. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. New York, N.Y.: Penguin.

    Douglas, Mary. 1970. Natural Symbols. New York, N.Y.: Random House/Vintage.

    Durkheim, Emile. 1995 (1912). The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York, N.Y.: Free Press.

    Eliade, Mircea. 1959. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. New York, N.Y.: Harcourt Brace and Co.

    Frazer, James G. 1981 (1890). The Golden Bough: The Roots of Religion and Folklore. New York, N.Y.: Avenel Books.

    Freud, Sigmund. 1989 (1913). Totem and Taboo. New York, N.Y.: Norton.

    Hume, David. 1993 (1779, 1757). Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and The Natural History of Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    James, William. 1972 (1901-1902). The Varieties of Religious Experience. London, UK: Fontana.

    Jung, Karl Gustav. 1964. Man and His Symbols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

    Levi-Strauss, Claude. 1963. Totemism. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.

    Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1954 (1926). Magic, Science, and Religion. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books.

    Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. 1964. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels on Religion. New York, N.Y.: Schocken Books.

    Otto, Rudolf. 1958 (1923). The Idea of the Holy. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

    Rappaport, Roy A. 1979. Ecology, Meaning, and Religion. Richmond, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.

    Turner, Victor. 1969. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Tylor, Edward B. 1970 (1871). Primitive Culture. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith.

    van Gennep, Arnold. 1960 (1908). The Rites of Passage. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.

    Weber, Max. 1958 (1904-1905). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York, N.Y.: Charles Scribner’s Sons.


    Case Studies

    Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1937. Witchraft, Oracles, and Magic Among the Azande. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

    Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1956. Nuer Religion. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

    Geertz, Clifford. 1960. The Religion of Java. New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company.

    Geertz, Clifford. 1968. Islam Observed: Religious Developments in Morocco and Indonesia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

    Turner, Victor. 1967. The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.


    Spiritual Ecology

    Albanese, Catherine L. 1990. Nature Religion in America From the Algonkian Indians to the New Age. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.

    Anderson, E. N. 1996. Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

    Berry, Thomas. 1988. The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books.

    Berry, Thomas. 1991. Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Reconciliation Between Humans and the Earth. Mystic, Conn.: Twenty-Third Publications.

    Beversluis, Joel, ed. 1995. Source Book for Earth’s Community of Religions. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Co Nexus Press.

    Breuilly, Elizabeth, and Martin Palmer, ed. 1992. Christianity and Ecology. London, UK: Cassell, Ltd.

    Callicott, J. Baird. 1994. Earth’s Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

    Callicott, J. Baird, and Roger T. Ames, eds. 1989. Nature in Asian Traditions of Thought: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

    Chapple, Christopher Key. 1993. Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

    Christiansen, Drew, and Walter Grazer, eds. 1996. And God Saw That It Was Good: Catholic Theology and the Environment. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Catholic Conference.

    Driver, B. L., et al. 1996. Nature and the Human Spirit: Toward an Expanded Land Management Ethic. State College, Pa.: Venture Publishing Co.

    Dwivedi, O. P., and B. N. Tiwari. 1987. Environmental Crisis and Hindu Religion. New Delhi, India: Gitanjali Publishing House.

    Formoso, Bernard. 1996. The Link With Nature and Divine Mediations in Asia. Providence, R. I.: Berghahn Books.

    Fox, Michael W. 1996. The Boundless Circle: Caring for Creatures and Creation. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books.

    Frick, Thomas, ed. 1986. The Sacred Theory of the Earth. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.

    George, James. 1995. Asking for the Earth: Waking Up to the Spiritual/Ecological Crisis. Rockport, Mass.: Element.

    Gottlieb, Roger S., ed. 1996. This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment. New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

    Hadassah, and Shomrei Adamah. 1993. Judaism and Ecology. New York, N.Y.: Hadassah.

    Hamilton, Lawrence S., eds. 1993. Ethics, Religion, and Biodiversity: Relations Between Conservation and Cultural Values. Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press.

    Harvey, Graham. 1997. Contemporary Paganism: Listening People, Speaking Earth. Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press.

    Hayden, Tom. 1996. The Lost Gospel of the Earth: A Call for Renewing Nature, Spirit, and Politics. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books.

    Hopman, Ellen Evert, and Lawrence Bond. 1996. People of the Earth: The New Pagans Speak Out. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books.

    Kader, Abou Bakr Ahmed Ba. 1995. Environmental Protection in Islam. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

    Khalid, Fazlun M., and Joanne O’Brien. 1992. Islam and Ecology. London, UK: Cassell, Ltd.

    Kinsley, David. 1995. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

    Lansing, J. Stephen. 1991. Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Endangered Landscape of Bali. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

    Le Quire, Stan L., ed. 1996. The Best Preaching on Earth. Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press.

    Moura, Ann (Aoumiel). 1997. Green Witchcraft: Folk Magic, Fairy Lore, and Herb Craft. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications.

    Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. 1993. The Need for a Sacred Science. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

    Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. 1996. Religion and Order of Nature. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

    Nelson, Lance E., ed. 1998. Purifying the Earthly Body of God: Religion and Ecology in Hindu India. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

    Prime, Ranchor. 1992. Hinduism and Ecology. London, UK: Cassell, Ltd.

    Rockefeller, Steven C., and John C. Elder, eds. 1992. Spirit and Nature: Why the Environment is a Religious Issue. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.

    Rose, Aubrey. 1992. Judaism and Ecology. London, UK: Cassell, Ltd.

    Roszak, Theodore. 1992. The Voice of the Earth: An Exploration of Ecopsychology. New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster.

    Sheldrake, Rupert. 1994. The Rebirth of Nature: The Greening of Science and God. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street Press.

    Spring, David, and Eileen Spring, eds. 1974. Ecology and Religion in History. New York, N.Y.: Harper and Row.

    Skolimowski, Henryk. 1993. A Sacred Place to Dwell: Living With Reverence Upon the Earth. Rockport, Mass.: Element.

    Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and John A. Grim, eds. 1993. Worldviews and Ecology. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press.

    Whelan, Robert, et al. 1996. The Cross and the Rainforest: A Critique of Radical Green Spirituality. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

    World Wildlife Fund International. 1986. The Assisi Declarations: Messages on Man and Nature from Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Washington, D.C.: World Wildlife Fund.


    Indigenous Spiritual Ecology

    Beck, Peggy V., Anna Lee Walters, and Nia Francisco. 1996. The Sacred: Ways of Knowledge, Sources of Life. Tsaile, Ariz.: Navajo Community College Press.

    Bierhorst, John. 1994. The Way of the Earth: Native America and the Environment. New York, N.Y.: William Morrow and Co.

    Bingham, Sam, and Janet Bingham. 1974. Between Sacred Mountains: Navajo Stories and Lessons from the Land. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press.

    Brown, Joseph Espes. 1996. The Spiritual Legacy of the American Indian. New York, N.Y.: Crossroad.

    Deloria, Vine, Jr. 1973. God Is Red. New York, N.Y.: Dell Publishing Co., Inc.

    Dudley, Michael Kioni. 1990. Man, Gods, and Nature. Honolulu, Hawaii: Na Kane O Ka Malo Press.

    Highwater, Jamake. 1981. The Primal Mind: Vision and Reality in Indian America. New York, N.Y.: New American Library.

    Hogan, Linda. 1995. Dwellings: A Spiritual History of the Living World. New York, N.Y.: Norton.

    Hughes, J. Donald. 1983. American Indian Ecology. El Paso, Tex: Texas Western Press.

    Kawagley, A. Oscar. 1995. A Yupiaq Worldview: A Pathway to Ecology and Spirit. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, Inc.

    Lake-Thom, Bobby. 1997. Spirits of the Earth: A Guide to Native American Nature Symbols, Stories, and Ceremonies. New York, N.Y.: Penguin.

    Mander, Jerry. 1991. In the Absence of the Sacred: The Failure of Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nation. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books.

    McFadden, Steven. 1991. Profiles in Wisdom: Native Leaders Speak About the Earth. Santa Fe, N. Mex.: Bear and Co.

    McGaa, Ed (Eagle Man). 1990. Mother Earth Spirituality: Native American Paths to Healing Ourselves and Our World. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins.

    McPherson, Robert S. 1992. Sacred Land, Sacred View: Navajo Perceptions of the Four Corners Region. Salt Lake City, Utah: Brigham Young University Press.

    Nelson, Richard K. 1983. Make Prayers to the Raven: A Koyukon View of the Northern Forest. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.

    Norberg-Hodge, Helena. 1991. Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books.

    Rappaport, Roy A. 1984 (1968). Pigs for the Ancestors: Ecology in the Ritual of a New Guinea People. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

    Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1971. Amazonian Cosmos: The Sexual and Religious Symbolism of the Tukano Indians. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.

    Smith, Nigel J. H. 1996. The Enchanted Amazon Rain Forest: Stories from a Vanishing World. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida Press.

    Sullivan, Lawrence E. 1988. Icanchu’s Drum: An Orientation to Meanings in South American Religions. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan.

    Suzuki, David, and Peter Knudtson. 1992. Wisdom of the Elders: Sacred Native Stories of Nature. New York, N.Y.: Bantam.

    Weaver, Jack, ed. 1996. Defending Mother Earth: Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis.


    Buddhist Ecology

    Badiner, Allan Hunt, ed. 1990. Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology. Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax Press.

    Batchelor, Martine, and Kerry Brown, eds. 1992. Buddhism and Ecology. New York, N.Y.: Cassell Publishers Ltd.

    Habito, Ruben L. F. 1993. Healing Breath: Zen Spirituality for a Wounded Earth. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis.

    Macy, Joanna. 1991. World As Lover, World As Self. Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax Press.

    Titmuss, Christopher. 1995. The Green Buddha. Denbury, UK: Insight Books.

    Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Duncan Ryuken Williams, eds. 1997. Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Cambridge, Mass.: Center for the Study of World Religions/Harvard University Press.

    Sacred Places

    Alcock, Susan E., and Robin Osborne, eds. 1994. Placing the Gods: Sanctuaries and Sacred Space in Ancient Greece. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

    Barber, Richard. 1991. Pilgrimages. Rochester, N.Y.: The Boydell Press.

    Barlow, Bernice. 1996. Sacred Sites of the West. St. Paul, Minn.:Llewellyn Publications.

    Barrie, Thomas. 1996. Spiritual Path, Sacred Place: Myth, Ritual, and Meaning in Architecture. Boston, Mass.: Shambhala.

    Bernbaum, Edwin. 1990. Sacred Mountains of the World. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books.

    Brockman, Norbert C., ed. 1997. Encyclopedia of Sacred Places. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.

    Campanelli, Dan, and Pauline Camanelli. 1993. Circle, Groves, and Sanctuaries: Sacred Spaces of Today’s Pagans. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications.

    Carmichael, David L., et al. 1994. Sacred Sites, Sacred Places.New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

    Castle, Leila, ed. 1996. Earthwalking Sky Dancers: Women’s Pilgrimages to Sacred Places. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.

    Chidester, David, and Edward T. Linenthal, eds. 1995. American Sacred Space. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.

    Einarsen, John, ed. 1995. The Sacred Mountains of Asia. Boston, Mass.: Shambhala.

    Frick, Thomas, ed. 1986. The Sacred Theory of the Earth. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.

    Harpur, James. 1994. The Atlas of Sacred Places: Meeting Points of Heaven and Earth. New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt and Co.

    Hillerman, Tony, and Bela Kalman. 1996. Indian Country: America’s Sacred Land. Albuquerque, N. Mex.: University of New Mexico Press.

    Holm, Jean, and John Bowker, eds. 1994. Sacred Place. London, UK: Pinter Publishers, Ltd.

    Jarow, Rick. 1997. In Search of the Sacred. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books.

    Kedar, Benjamin Z., and R. J. Zwi Werblowsky, eds. 1998. Sacred Space: Shrine, City, Land. Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press.

    Korp, Maureen. 1996. The Sacred Geography of the American Mound Builders. Lewistown, N.Y.: Edwin Mellon.

    McLuhan, T. C. 1996. Cathedrals of the Spirit: The Message of Sacred Places. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins Publishers, Ltd.

    McNally, Dennis. 1985. Sacred Space: An Aesthetic for the Liturgical Environment. Bristol, Ind.: Wyndham Hall Press.

    Milne, Courtney. 1995. Sacred Places in North America: A Journey into the Medicine Wheel. New York, N.Y.: Stewart, Tabori, and Chang.

    Mitchell, John. 1975. The Earth Spirit: Its Way, Shrines, and Mysteries.New York, N.Y.: Avon.

    Molyneaux, Brian Leigh. 1995. The Sacred Earth. New York, N.Y.: Little, Brown, and Co.

    Nelson, John K. 1996. A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrines. Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press.

    Nolan, Mary Lee, and Sidney Nolan. 1989. Christian Pilgrimage in Modern Western Europe. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press.

    Pennick, Nigel. 1996. Celtic Sacred Landscapes. London, UK: Thames and Hudson.

    Olsen, W. Scott, and Scott Cairns, eds. 1996. The Sacred Place: Witnessing the Holy in the Physical World. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press.

    Swan, James A. 1990. Sacred Places: How the Living Earth Seeks Our Friendship. Santa Fe, N. Mex.: Bear and Company.

    Swan, James A., and Roberta Swan. 1996. Boundless Circle: Caring for Creatures and Creation. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest.

    Versluis, Arthur. 1992. Sacred Earth: The Spiritual Landscape of Native America. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International.

    Westerwood, Jennifer. 1997. Sacred Journeys: An Illustrated Guide to Pilgrimages Around the World. New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt and Co.

    Wilson, Colin. 1996. The Atlas of Holy Places and Sacred Sites. New York, N.Y.: DK Publishing, Inc.

    Wurlitzer, Rudolph. 1995. Hard Travel to Sacred Places. Boston: Shambhala.


    Sacred Trees

    Altman, Nathaniel. 1994. Sacred Trees. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books.

    Boyer, Marie-France. 1996. Tree-Talk: Memories, Myths and Timeless Customs. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson.

    Gottlieb, Alma. 1992. Under the Kapok Tree: Identity and Difference in Beng Thought. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.

    Kaza, Stephanie. 1996. The Attentive Heart: Conversations with Trees.Boston: Shambhala.

    Perlman, Michael. 1994. The Power of Trees: The Reforesting of the Soul. Dallas, Tex.: Spring Publications.

    Rival, Laura, ed. 1998. The Social Life of Trees: Anthropological Perspectives on Tree Symbolism. New York: Berg.

    Seeland, Klaus, ed. 1997. Nature is Culture: Indigenous Knowledge and Socio-Cultural Aspects of Trees and Forests in Non-European Cultures. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd.


    Miscellaneous

    Adams, Carol J., ed. 1994. Ecofeminism and the Sacred. New York: Continuum.

    Bateson, Gregory. 1991. Sacred Unity: Further Steps to an Ecology of the Mind. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins.

    Coffman, Michael S. 1994. Saviors of the Earth: The Politics and Religion of the Environmental Movement. Whitinsville, Mass.: Northfield.

    Feld, Steven, and Keith H. Basso. 1996. Senses of Place. Santa Fe, New Mex.: School of American Research Press.

    Fletcher, Richard. 1997. The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganismto Christianity. New York: Henry Holt.

    Kearney, Michael. 1984. World View. Novato, Calif.: Chandler and Sharp Publishers, Inc.

    Reynolds, Vernon, and Ralph Tanner. 1995. The Social Ecology of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Ruether, Rosemary Radford. 1996. Women Healing Earth: Third World Women on Ecology, Feminism, and Religion. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis.

    Tilley, Christopher. 1994. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and Monuments. New York: Berg.

    Watson, Lyall. 1987. Beyond Supernature: A New Natural History of the Supernatural. New York: Bantam.

     

    Copyright © 1998 Les Sponsel.
    Reprinted with permission.
    The author retains all copyrights for all syllabi materials.
    Please contact each author individually for reprint rights.